(1) The most influential theory of emotions was proposed in 1884 by William James, the American psychologist and philosopher. (2) Scientists have faced problems in attempting to formulate a precise definition of emotion. (3) A Danish physiologist, Carl Lange, without prior knowledge of James' writings, published the same concept in 1887. (4) The proposition came to be known as the James-Lange theory. (5) Prior to the formulation of this theory, it had been assumed that emotions were aroused by ideas that the provoking situation aroused in the individual's mind.(6) To use a simple example: man sees bear; man feels afraid; man runs away. (7) James and Lange reversed the sequence: man sees bear; man runs away; man feels afraid. (8) According to this view, the physiological reactions are the immediate reflex response to the provoking stimulus. (9) The emotions appear only when the individual senses that bodily changes are occurring.
Which of the following sentences from the paragraph is irrelevant?